O trabalho em turnos
The work in turns the work in turns is forms of organization of the daily day of work where activities in different schedules are carried through or in constant schedule p [prays uncommon
The turn is resultant of the same activities carried through in different periods of the day and the night.
In the great industries one works generally in followed turns, and in the companies it is presented in the form of irregular turns (for the fact of accumulations of works in the different schedules).
Basic forms of systems of work in turns
In principle, we can say, that two basic forms of works in turns exist, being they:
üPermanent: they are the turns where the worker one has determined hourly one per many years or all the work life, that is, this worker works every day in the same hourly, for example only during the day, or to the afternoon, or dusk, or turn of the night.
ü Alternated or rodiziantes: it is when the employees make casters of turns, for the fact that all must have wage the same (this is one of the causes to be in caster form), therefore, all must fulfill hourly matutinos in such a way how much vespertine or nocturnal, thus, the wage is not modified in the final value. This form of turns, can have a slow rotation, that is, the rotation or caster is greater that one week, generally is around 21 days working in the same turn. Another form of this caster is the weekly rotation, where to each five or seven days the diligent exchange of turn, going for the morning, the afternoon or at night.
According to literature, exists types of turns still more, but the most used and more common two are these cited. When the company who possesss 3 turns of work, in accordance with the Brazilian constitution, must be had 5 groups of employees to supply the continuous or uninterrupted work of rotation, so that the production of the plant is not ceased during 24hs of the day. Already the discontinous work, inside characterizes for the activity of the work to be inferior 24hs daily of the company.
The turns can in accordance with be programmed 2 types of time or working hours, but this system, to be used, varies of company for company, depends on the enterprise organization and economic financier:
üTime flexible: or flextime, of to the considerable worker the choice to program its daily working hours in the attendance of its weekly obligations. spaced out
üTime flexible: or flextime, of to the considerable worker the choice to program its daily working hours in the attendance of its weekly obligations. spaced out
ü Hours staggered, the workers are assigned or if he allows that they choose the hours to start to work inside of the existing turns already.
Because the work in turn exists
In the average age, the nocturnal work in turns and grew radically, but the biggest evidence and permission for one better work in turns was from séc. XIX, when the electric light bulb of Thomas Edison was invented, thus generating, a safe source of the growth of the work together with the presence of the electric energy.
The industrial revolution allowed the entrance of more people in the great plants, thus increasing, the number of employees and reduction of the horária load of the turn. In the great world-wide wars, the amount of people can be verified who had left agriculture to work in the warlike industries, thus increasing, the number of workers who worked in nocturnal turns and.
Today, we can observe this increasing idea of work, in allowing to know that 25% of the population are of workers who work in nocturnal turns and.
“Although the origins of the existence of the work in turns to the time of the separation of the work enter the components of one definitive society, its reasons are placed, currently, enter of order the technique, that is, industrial processes that use continuous operations, economic, where the cost of the maquinário demands its uninterrupted one to become the economically viable production, social, for the requirement of the increase of the industrial capacity, with the use of the system in turns, for making possible the increase of the capacity industrial, with the use of the system in turns, for making possible the increase of employed workers, demand, for the increase of the search for determined product and requirement of some segments of the sector of services, as for example railroads, post offices, airports, policy, hospitals,… etc” (apud Gilsée, 1998).
- causas tecnológicas: onde certos
tipos de produtos só podem ser elaborados com alta qualidade se o processo
produtivo não for interrompido a cada 8 ou 16 horas. Estes motivos tecnológicos
quase sempre levam ao trabalho ininterrupto, no qual o trabalho não ocorre em
função da hora, mas sim em função da semana.
2.economic impositions: because it leads to the installation of extremely expensive machines and alone they can be paid through stated periods, thus leading, to its continuous functioning to generate profit thus and, to be paid.
attendance to the population: this aspect is directed the population, its desires and necessities of consumption, that is, for example: if a bakery left to function to the sundays, would leave to take care of to the neighborhood, that is in house, resting and that more it desires its products, whereas the bakery in itself, leaves to have profit with venda of breads and spends little with the employees who would have to be of plantão in that day.
When occur the turns?
Hardly it is obtained to make a description of the distribution of the turns, but one knows that the companies, they are always in negotiation with its workers, and always implanting new ideas based on research and previous stories or studies, in accordance with the branch of activity and with the transport of the company.
The effect of the turns in the workers
The secular organization of the nocturnal work in turns and brings undeniable damages for the health of the worker, as much in the aspect physical, as psychic, emotional and social; in virtue of the organizations of the work, indeléveis marks in the worker occur.
The work in nocturnal turns and can be cause of a series of physiological and psicossociais riots had to the changes of the biological rhythms, familiar and social dessincronização of the life of the worker, leading, to an appointed picture as Syndrome of Maladaptação of the work in turns.
In a first month of works in nocturnal turns and, the worker already can present some acute manifestations as the sleeplessness, extreme sleepiness during the work, riots of the mood, familiar, social and emotional increase of accidents and problems. After some years in this form of work, the individual starts to present some chronic manifestations as clutters of sleep, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal illnesses, absenteeism, separation and divorces.
This inadaptation of the worker to the nocturnal turns and, can also takes it it the abusive substance use to sleep and alcohol use, without counting to the presence of a chronic fatigue and continuous manifestations of estresse. This picture, of a general form, can also take in account the security and vigil of the worker, causing later, industrial accidents that can takes it it serious risks of same life or the death.
Distúrbios de saúde
Riots of health
The organism of the human being in accordance with functions a biological clock, that possesss distinct rhythms in accordance with functioning the external and internal ambient factors. The natural ritimicidade for diverse functions of our body follows a behavior periodic, definite its frequency, and classified in accordance with in 3 types:
1.circadiano: it leads about one day, that is, it has frequency next to 24hs of the day.
2.ultradiano: it has bigger frequency that the circadian, however inferior cycle to 24hs of one day.
3.infradiano: it has lesser frequency that the circadian rhythm, however its cycles have superior duration to 24hs of one day.
The circadian rhythms are gifts in diverse corporal functions as for example: body temperature, corticosteróides and electrolytes of the serum and urinários, functions cardiovascular, gastric enzyme secretion, number of leukocytes of the blood, muscular force, been of alert, mood, immediate memory and in the long run.
Already the ultradianos rhythms are gifts in the interval of 90 the 100 minutes between the repetitions of the fast movement of the eyes during paradoxical sleep. The infradianos E, rhythms are gifts inside of the menstrual cycle of the women.
For the most part of the biological cycles, it is had principle, a average of a period of 25,2hs, existing always the differences of individual for individual, therefore, the zero hour for one is not the same one for the other. Therefore, the matutinos individuals exist that are those that wakes up and sleeps early, and the vespertine individuals, that are those that sleeps very late and wakes up for return of the half day. This cited aspect, is of extreme importance, therefore these functions influence in the cycle of the sleep of this individual.
Beyond these aspects, we also have the external stimulatons, that is, the light or blackout also is part of an item that influences in the synchronization of the internal rhythms, or of the biological rhythms.
This powerful rephaser in our lives, the light of the day, makes with that the presence of some glands can function of form such that the production of some necessary hormones really is used to advantage and in not causing the serious riots as in the case of some nocturnal workers, who later, suffers serious damages.
Hormônios liberados pelo organismo durante as 24hs
Set free hormones for the organism during 24hs
Some examples of hormone release that follows the biological cycle and that, when modified, in them bring consequences due to the desregulamento, that in the case, happens during the nocturnal works.
The natural rhythm of these hormones is:
Cycle sleep vigil
From these factors, we must know that the cycle of sleep is divides in five phases, being they:
1ª phase: beginning of the sleepiness and reduction of the amplitude of the waves.
2ª phase: the electric activity is alternated, appearing episodes high-frequency, great spindles of sleep, waves and slow of occurrence it causes. It is the phase of characterized sleep.
3ª phase: a certain frequency of waves occurs and the maintenance of tônus muscular.
4ª phase: it is the phase of deep sleep, with the presence of slow waves, reduction of the easiness to wake up, diminishes tônus muscular, reduction of the cardiac and respiratory frequency and reduction of the arterial pressure. It is the considered repousante sleep of physical recovery.
The standard of sleep, in the human beings, is changeable in function of the age, being that the amount of sleep diminishes with the half age, and the quality of the vigil if translates difficulties when fulfilling activities or work.
In the case of individuals that has its modified schedules of sleep, psicofisiológicos factors of disequilibrium teem.
Temperatura corporal, desempenho e carga cognitiva
Body temperature, performance and cognitiva load
The body temperature of the man suffers variations during the entire day, where they occur increase during the time of bigger activity (in the part of the afternoon) and later it has a considerable decline (in the dawn, for return of 2hs of the morning).
Estas variações consideráveis da temperatura durante todo o dia, indica que não há uma adaptação e desempenho do homem ao trabalho noturno assim como existe no trabalhador diurno.
These considerable variations of the temperature during all the day, indicate that it does not have an adaptation and performance of the man to the nocturnal work as well as exists in the diurne worker.
The cognitiva load the same does not follow rhythm that the body temperature, therefore, we can observe that the activity that needs complex memory they can at night be carried through during the day or with good performances.
Os trabalhadores que utilizam a memória imediata se mostram muito bem durante o dia, enquanto que aqueles que precisam da memória funcional demonstram maior desempenho ao meio dia, e os trabalhadores que necessitam de uma carga cognitiva elevada são melhor realizados e com demonstração de melhor desempenho é durante a noite.
The workers who use the immediate memory if show very well during the day, whereas those that they need the functional memory demonstrate to greater performance to the half day, and the workers who need a high cognitiva load better are carried through and with demonstration of better performance are during the night.
In such a way, we can perceive, that depending on the activity or task, occurs a different performance in each schedule of the day.
One of the nervous riots more gifts in the workers of nocturnal turns and happens of the long hours of working, being estresse it, where, they are more gifts in the nocturnal workers who in diurne or the vespertine ones (that hardly they present).
The gastrointestinal riots generally appear for the fact of the workers not to have schedules adjusted for the ideal feeding, being been that to a great extent, the food alteration occurs for snacks. The factor also exists that influences directly, that it is the working hours in its turn (diurne, vespertine or nocturnal).
These riots in general, are: azia, gastrite, peptic ulceração, dispepsias (difficulty in the digestion), colites, diarréias, intestinal constipation and etc.
Fatigue and accidents
The fatigue is one of the greaters and basic complaints of the workers of long hours, mainly are present in say them of the nocturnal workers.
They can cause industrial accidents due to the organic disequilibrium, the presence of tensions, conflicts, emotions and routine.
Todos estes fatores desencadeiam um processo de fadiga, que pode vir a se tornar altamente prejudicial através de acidentes nos finais dos turnos, principalmente nos noturnos.
Disturbances in the family and the social life. The work in turn affects the entire family.
Devido ao trabalho de turno, a rotina familiar nunca pode ser inteiramente vivida.
It has a degree of social isolation for the turn workers. This everything is still more intense to that, beyond the rotation turn, still they pass the intrajornada one confined.
The work in rotation turn has direct effect on sleep. High and the low ones of the circadian cycle increase to the alert state of of morning, making it difficult catching in sleep. External factors as noise, familiar light of the sun and obligations frequent interrupt or shorten the repousos. It also has loss in the quality.
The people pass little time in the periods of training of deep sleep, important to recoup the fatigue. Also they have little sleep of the type “Rapid Eyes Movement” (REM), important for the mental health.
It has lain Many studies show that diligent in turn they have more complaints of nervousness, chronic fatigue, anxiety, depression and irritability. “You feel yourself as if she had a nervous collapse” e “You react exactly with irritation when she does not want” - diligent of turn they answer more “yes” of what of diurne day. A study in an oil refinery in Austria it found a predominance of “psiconeuroticos riots” - folloied of depression, nervousness and anxiety of the turneiros on the diurne workers.
Turneiros stomach has gastrointestinal problems, as constipations, diarréia, excess of gases, abdominal pains and queimações, the two three more common times of what in the diurne workers. This bigger frequency also if verifies in cases more serious as peptic ulcers, of two the five more frequent times in turneiros of what in the diurne ones. “The people have more difficulty in the digestion during the night. They also contribute riots in sleep, food in excess, coffees, tobacco and estresse
A European study it disclosed that women in the rotation turn have two times more difficulty in obtaining the fecundação of what diligent diurnas. - Abortion: A Canadian study it evidenced that women who work at night have the double of risk of natural abortions of what of diurne day, and another British study discovered that more risks of abortions have 44%. - Premature Births: A French study sample that turneiras increases the risk of premature births in 60%. - Low weight to the rising: Studies in the Finlândia and China had found that turneiras they have one raised risk to give birth babies with low weight. - High pressure: A Norwegian study it evidenced that turneiras they have more risks to suffer from high pressure during the pregnancy (a known condition as “daily pay-eclampsia”). The increase of the risk was of 30% in general and 100% for that already they had children.
Nocturnal Diligent accidents are more susceptible to the fight between the sleep and the loss of ability to think clearly during the first hours of the morning (between 3 and 5 of the one madruga-of).
The workers call this schedule “zombie zone”. The potential to fall of sleep or an error of judgment can result since a product below of the quality standard until a great industrial accident. Some of the great and more well-known industrial accidents (Three-Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, and Exxon Valdez) ocorrreram during these first hours of the morning with human errors being the factor key of all they.
CARNE COM ABÓBORA
EASY COOKING MEAT WITH PUMPKIN
1 colher (sopa) de óleo
1 cebola grande cortada em pétalas 1 colher (sopa) de farinha de trigo
300 g de alcatra em cubos
250 g de abóbora descascada, em cubos
sal a gosto
2 envelopes de MAGGI® TEMPERO E SABOR Cominho + LOURO
Modo de Preparo
2 ovos inteiros;
1 xícara de açúcar;
1 colher de margarina (derretida);
100 g de côco ralado;
2 colheres (sopa) de leite de côco;
1 colher de sobremesa de baunilha.
Ingredients: 4 egg yolks; 2 entire eggs; 1 xícara of sugar; 1 spoon of butter (melted); 100 g of perforated litlle coconut; 2 spoons (soup) of coconut milk; 1 vanilla dessert spoon.